Mrs Justice Pauffley orders return of 7yr daughter to US as no Re P-J ‘consent’ nor Article 13B exception established by M. She gives a useful summary of the considerations in deciding if there was consent to removal of the child following Re P-J (Abduction: Habitual Residence: Consent)  2 FLR 1051:
(1) Consent to the removal of the child must be clear and unequivocal.
(2) Consent can be given to the removal at some future but unspecified time or upon the happening of some future event.
(3) Such advance consent must, however, still be operative and in force at the time of the actual removal.
(4) The happening of the future event must be reasonably capable of ascertainment. The condition must not have been expressed in terms which are too vague or uncertain for both parties to know whether the condition will be fulfilled. Fulfillment of the condition must not depend on the subjective determination of one party, for example, "Whatever you may think, I have concluded that the marriage has broken down and so I am free to leave with the child." The event must be objectively verifiable.
(5) Consent, or the lack of it, must be viewed in the context of the realities of family life, or more precisely, in the context of the realities of the disintegration of family life. It is not to be viewed in the context of, nor governed by, the law of contract.
(6) Consequently consent can be withdrawn at any time before actual removal. If it is, the proper course is for any dispute about removal to be resolved by the courts of the country of habitual residence before the child is removed.
(7) The burden of proving the consent rests on him or her who asserts it.
(8) The enquiry is inevitably fact specific and the facts and circumstances will vary infinitely from case to case.
(9) The ultimate question is a simple one even if a multitude of facts bear upon the answer. It is simply this: had the other parent clearly and unequivocally consented to the removal?
CAROLINE HELY HUTCHINSON Barrister
Family, Divorce and Matrimonial Lawyer
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Lady Justice Macur DBE summarised the post Imerman duties where a legal representative is informed of the existence of illicitly obtained material. It must be returned which triggers the duty of the recipients's legal representative to make any relevant disclosure. The ability of the wrongdoer or principal to challenge the sufficiency of the disclosure is confined to the memory of the contents which is admissible but the Court has the power to exclude it having performed the balancing exercise of considering 'what is necessary for disposing fairly of the application for ancillary relief or for saving costs' and the overall justice of admitting it.